Table 2. Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibres for Composite Applications. Western red cedar (Thuja plicata). Depending on the type of natural fibres, type of matrix, the proportion of fiber-matrix, and the type of manufacturing process, the properties of fiber composites can be tailored to achieve the desired end product (Ticoalu 2010). Based on their sustainability, plant fibers such as hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, banana, and ramie fibers are replacing synthetic fibers in increasing numbers of fiber-reinforced composites. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21500767. It is clear that plants are essential to animal life and form the bulk of most human diets, providing a diversity of food through digestible carbohydrates. 2000). Asokan, P., Firdoous, M., and Sonal, W. (2012a). “Potential materials for food packaging from nanoclay/natural fibres filled hybrid composites,” Materials & Design 46, 391-410. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2012.10.044, Mao, Z. Milk. (2008). (2004). Retrieved from http://www.pessoal.utfpr.edu. (1991). Cheng, G., and Cheng, J. Fig. The smaller, younger roots and narrow flexible twigs and stems have been used in basketry and to make fishing nets. A tray made of beargrass and yucca. 2009; Ramakrishna et al. Sweet grass is another important member of the grass family used by Native Americans. Cellulose produces long, … Photo by Teresa Prendusi. (2013). Cellulosic nanofibres obtained from plant fibres have unique mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties that can be utilized for diverse applications. Potential Use of Plant Fibres and their Composites for Biomedical Applications, Farideh Namvar,a,b,* Mohammad Jawaid,a,g Paridah Md Tahir,a Rosfarizan Mohamad,a,c Susan Azizi,d Alireza Khodavandi,e Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,f and Majid Dehghan Nayeri a, Keywords: Fibres; Polymers; Biocomposites; Biomedical applications, Contact information: a: Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; b: Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran; c: Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; d: Faculty of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; e: Department of Paramedical Sciences, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran; f: Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; g:Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;* Corresponding author: farideh.namvar@gmail.com. The primary reason for the development of biocomposites from natural fibre is flexibility of type/distribution of the reinforcing phases in the composites and the possibility to obtain biocomposites having a wide range of mechanical and biological properties (Ramakrishna et al. “A review on natural fibre-based composites—Part II: Application of natural reinforcements in composite materials for automotive industry,” Journal of Natural Fibers 1(3). “Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties,” Progress in Materials Science 53(1), 1-206. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.002, Milanese, A. C., Cioffi, M. O. H., and Voorwald, H. J. C. (2011). “Naturally derived factors and their role in the promotion of angiogenesis for the healing of chronic wounds,” Angiogenesis 16(3), 493-502. doi:10.1007/s10456-013-9341-1, Mueller, D., and Krobjilowski, A. (2008). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), a common cultivated garden plant in our area, is an excellent source of fiber that holds promise for paper making. 2. Flory, A., and Requesens, D. (2013). The cell wall often contain lignin an cellulose. DiGregorio, B. E. (2009). Patel, N. R., and Gohil, P. P. (2012). “Biomimetics for next generation materials,” Philosophical Transactions. Retrieved from http://www.jeffjournal.org/INJ/inj04_4/p31-38t-mueller.pdf, Mukhopadhyay, S., and Fangueiro, R. (2009). However, they have some disadvantages as well, such as moisture absorption and photochemical degradation because of the UV radiations. (2013). Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Wood fibres – can be used to make paper from trees Sisal fibres – are obtained from Agave Sisalana and these fibres are used in the construction of cars, furniture, plastics and even paper. Therefore, composite materials offer a greater potential of structural biocompatibility than the homogenous monolithic materials. 2004). There are numerous dyes obtained from plants with which to colour our fabrics. “Influence of natural fiber type in eco-composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107, 2994-3004. doi:10.1142/5673, Hutmacher, D., Hürzeler, M. B., and Schliephake, H. (2000). Plant-based fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, hemp, and kenaf have been frequently used in the manufacturing of biocomposites. Many plants have oil-rich seeds and these oils can be extracted when they have a variety of uses. The matrix (the bioresin/synthetic resin) supports the fibrous material (natural fibres) and transfers the stress to the fiber to carry the load in natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites. The first essential requirement of materials to be used as biomaterial is its acceptability by the human body. Plant fibres include seed hairs, such as cotton; stem (or bast) fibres, such as flax and hemp;leaf fibres, such as sisal; and husk fibres, such as coconut. (2012). 30, 254-261. “Coir fibre reinforcement and application in polymer composites: A review,” J. “Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: Opportunities and challenges in the green materials world,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 10(1-2), 18-26. A strip of bark is placed over the eyes, and the natural openings (lenticels) in the bark serve as apertures for the eyes. Cotton. “Biobased performance bioplastic: Mirel,” Chemistry & Biology 16(1), 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.001. “Development of a green binder system for paper products,” BMC, Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6750-13-28.pdf. Commercial usage of biomaterials obtained from sustainable materials has been significantly rising due to increasing prices of petroleum products and the demand for environmental friendly and sustainable biomedical devices. In the past few years, demand for natural fibres has shown a dramatic increase for making new types of environmentally–friendly composites (Cheung et al. 1996. Table 1. “Characterization of natural fibers and their application in bone grafting substitutes,” Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics / Wrocław University of Technology 13(1), 77-84. Mechanical Properties of Different Biomedical Materials Classes. The main problem of those composites is the coordination of the degradation behavior of both phases and, especially, of the interphase between fibre and matrix. ), leaf fibers (banana, sisal, manila hemp, agave, abaca, pineapple, etc. As biomedical application of natural fibre and biocomposite is a new field, most of the research has focused on improving properties of natural fibre and also enhancement properties between the polymer matrices and natural fillers in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the end products. For instance, an acetabular cup of a hip prosthesis, is generally biocompatible, whereas its fibrous form, as in a finely woven fabric, has been shown to produce a different, more adverse reaction (Patel and Gohil 2012). Indian and Chinese craftspeople have been utilizing glues, waxes, and tissues to repair or regenerate abnormal parts of the body as a traditional treatment of wounded or traumatized patients (Patel and Gohil 2012). Biocomposites are used for hard tissue applications, including prosthetic socket, dental post, external fixator, bone plate, orthodontic archwire, orthodontic bracket, total hip replacement, and composite screws and pins. Coir fibre is thick and … “Manufacturing process of antibacterial bamboo pulp used for high-wet-modulus fibre,” China Patent CN102677504, Yang, H.-S., Wolcott, M. P., Kim, H.-S., Kim, S., and Kim, H.-J. “Characterisation of natural fibre reinforcements and composites,” Journal of Composites 2013, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2013/416501. Due to the need for more environmental friendly materials, natural fiber composites have been regaining increased attention. For some applications as in dental implants, biopolymers offer a better aesthetic characteristic. Morgan, C., and Nigam, Y. Coir fibre: Coir fibre is a natural fibre that is obtained from the coconut tree. The composite provides high fracture toughness and high resistance against fatigue failure. The solution to this is a new porous resorbable ceramic-polymer biocomposite, with morphology and a mechanical resistance similar to those of natural cancellous bone. “The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications,” Biomacromolecules 8(1), 1-12. doi:10.1021/bm060620d, Daunton, C., and Kothari, S. (2012). Majeed, K., Jawaid, M., Hassan, A., Abu Bakar, A., Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Salema, A. (2005b). wool, silk, and chicken feather fibres (Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009). Cullen, R. K., Singh, M. M., and Summerscales, J. “A review on natural fibre-based composites—Part II: Application of natural reinforcements in composite materials for automotive industry,” Journal of Natural Fibers 1(3). The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered as an essential design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. The fibers may be chemically modified, like … 2004). Shallow pine needle tray made from longleaf pine and bark. Use plant based materials for fabrics, ropes etc. Whilst all land plants contain fibres they are usually too short or too weak to be used for anything other than paper-making, but there are well over 100 species suitable for growing in temperate climates that produce long and relatively strong fibres. Natural fibres are of interest to scientists due to advantageous traits such as low cost, high strength to weight ratio, low density per unit volume, non-corrosive property, and acceptable specific strength, in addition to their renewable and degradable characteristics (Joshi et al. (2012). Plants including cotton, jute, flax and hemp are used to obtain plant fibres. Benefits for patients are a faster bone healing, no risk of pathogen transfer compared to allograft, faster and cheaper surgery, and less pain compared to auto graft. Biocomposites can be fabricated by combining biofibres such as oil palm, kenaf, industrial hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fibre, sisal, wood, and various grasses with polymer matrices from either non-renewable (petroleum based) or renewable resources (Jawaid and Khalil 2011). Table 6 summarizes some patent regarding application of natural fibre for biomedical applications. (2009). “A brief review on extraction of nanocellulose and its application,” Nepal Journals OnLine 9, 81-87. A sacred grass, it was and still is often used in healing ceremonies and peace rituals. Different in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary to establish that the individual materials by themselves be biocompatible. Herman, D.E., et al. Key Factors for the Selection of Materials for Biomedical Applications. Furthermore, biocomposites offer opportunities for environmental gains, reduced energy consumption, insulation, and sound absorption properties. Table 5. 2001). Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally used to make paper, cloth, or rope. A schematic diagram shows the potential use of biocomposites in the repair, reconstruction, and replacement of human hard tissues (Fig. Presently fibre-reinforced polymer composites are extensively used multiphase materials in orthopedics, and most of the today’s upper and lower limb prostheses are made from composites with an underlying polymer matrix (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). Most of this fibre reaching… Mechanical Properties of Different Natural Fibre Composites. (2010). van Dam, T.A. From a search of the literature it is clear that fully resorbable biocomposite fracture fixation has been achieved based on the group of PLA (polylactic acid) polymers; PLAs possess two major characteristics that make them an extremely attractive bioabsorbable material: (1) they can degrade inside the body at a rate that can be controlled, e.g. “Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review,” Carbohydrate Polymers 86(1), 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.04.043, Joshi, S., Drzal, L., Mohanty, A., and Arora, S. (2004). For Ex: cotton, wool ,Silk ,flax, jute. Figure 3 illustrates fabrication of different types of bio-composites according to their reinforcement forms. Mater. Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Fibres Products. Oil is also produced from the seeds. Goldstein, S. A, Matthews, L. S., Kuhn, J. L., and Hollister, S. J. Innovations in the composite material design and fabrication processes are raising the possibility of realizing implants with improved performance by using plant fibres based biocomposites. 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. Most of the living tissues such as bone, cartilage, and skin are essentially composites (Meyers et al. Animal fibres include wool, hair and secretions, such as silk. Researchers obtained cellulose nanofibers from flax bast fibers, hemp fibers, kraft pulp, and rutabaga and developed nanocomposites from cellulose nanofibres which can find application in the medical field such as blood bags, cardiac devices, and valves as reinforcing biomaterials (Bhatnagar 2005). An example of the use of biocomposites in clinical application is cages for spinal fusion. Table 3. Natural fibres by themselves cannot be used to sustain the range of loads expected in many biomedical applications (Everitt et al. Selection of Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications. Fiber Plants. Bamboo processing can involve leaves, stem and the soft inner pith to synthesise textiles suitable for many uses. Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. (2002). 2009). 2001). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1791174, Hin, T. S. (2004). The plant materials, like jute, contribute to the manufacturing of bags, ropes, and other materials. Sci. Source: Black and Hasting 1998; Cheung et al. The most used plant fibres are cotton, flax and hemp, although sisal, jute, kenaf, bamboo and coconut are also widely used. The outer bark of paper birch has been used in an emergency as sun-glasses in order to prevent snow-blindness. American basswood was important for wigwam construction and framework, used to make twine that was used to tie the poles of wigwams together. 1400 Independence Ave., SW Mater. Yu, G. (2003). It is also an important food plant. Development of biocomposites by using natural fibres as an alternative to petroleum based materials would help to reduce dependence on imported oil, carbon dioxide emission, and help to generate more economical opportunities for the agricultural sector. Biocomposites fabrication can be done by different methods, sometimes placing natural fibre in the desired direction to obtain polymer composites having specific mechanical properties. “Bioabsorbable implants: Review of clinical experience in orthopedic surgery,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 32(1), 171-177, Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14964733. Kapok (Ceiba pentandra), seed fiber of South American tree; fibers are hollow and waterproof, used for life preservers, parkas. Nonwovens J. However, not all carbohydrates are digestible. 2007; Daunton and Kothari 2012). Cattails are used for weaving baskets, mats, raincoats, and baby diapers. “Polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering application: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science 2011(ii), 1-19. doi:10.1155/2011/290602. “Medical natural porous fiber filler and vacuum sealing drainage device thereof,” China Patent CN102715983. Another merit of a fibre-reinforced polymer is that it is possible to obtain properties and design of an implant to suit the mechanical and physiological conditions of the host tissues by variation of volume fractions and arrangement of reinforcement phase. 2011). Biocompatibility is an important factor that can distinguish between the chemical, biological, and physical suitability of materials and its compatibility in terms of mechanical properties (stiffness, strength, optimum loading) at the implant/tissue interface (Ramakrishna et al. That resources can be replaced. “Recent development of flax fibres and their reinforced composites based on different polymeric matrices,” Materials 6(11), 5171-5198. doi:10.3390/ma6115171. The Low Country of South Carolina is renowned for its coiled sweetgrass baskets. Article submitted: January 24, 2014; Peer review completed: March 29, 2014; Revised version received: April 22, 2014; Accepted: May 4, 2014; Published: May 12, 2014. “Mechanical behavior of natural fiber composites,” Procedia Engineering 10, 2022-2027. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.335. instead of non renewable sources. 3 that different kinds of reinforcements, i.e. It is better to use renewable sources. 2001). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353810002319. Thus, implants made from these materials tend to be much stiffer than the tissue to which they are attached. Sweet grass was often burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies. Moreover, the properties are also affected by the place where the fibers are grown, cultivation conditions, the part of the plant they are harvested from, the growing period, and any retting or extracting processes (Ticoalu 2010). 3. Natural fibres can be obtained from plant fibres such as sisal, hemp, bamboo, coir, flax, kenaf, jute, ramie, oil palm, pineapple, banana, cotton, etc., as well as from animal sources, e.g. Individual fibers from yuccas were produced by soaking leaves in water, then pounding them with wooden clubs on flat rocks. 2001; With Permission). Plant fibres 1. Retrieved from http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780125824637/samplechapters/ch01.pdf. The Tohono O’odham people of Arizona extensively use yucca fibers in their basketry. Wool … Abaca: It's a leaf fibre, composed of long slim cells that form part of the leaf's supporting structure. The beautiful tray pictured to the right is made from fibrous bundles of beargrass (Nolina) leaves coiled with dried yellow and fresh green yucca leaves. Bodros, E., Pillin, I., Montrelay, N., and Baley, C. (2007). The “sweetgrass” (Muhlenbergia filipes) grows along the southeastern coastal plain. “Looking for links between natural fibres’ structures and their physical properties,” Conference Papers in Materials Science, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/141204. American basswood (Tilia americana). 2010). Therefore, a matrix material is used to bind and protect the natural fibres. Furniture & Shelter. The following table summarizes some of these results. Xue, Q., Xu, F., Yu, W., Liu , A., Pu, Y., and Zhang, L. (2012). 2008). (2009) reviewed recent progress made in the area of cellulose nanofibre-based nanocomposites and their application. Different cellulose fibres can be used for textile and technical applications, e.g. Fibers from the thick bark of the western red cedar, Thuja plicata, have been most widely utilized. “Improving the impact strength of natural fiber reinforced composites by specifically designed material and process parameters,” Int. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J395v01n03_03. Recently, ongoing work has explored the use of palm tree fibres for industrial and biomedical applications (Anon 2013). Abundant amounts of natural fibres are available in nature, and these can be applied as reinforcement or bio-fillers in the manufacturing of polymer composites (Yang et al. Photo by Charlie McDonald. 2013). Therefore, the use of natural fibers may bring environmental benefits as well as cost benefits. 2013). Moreover surgeons can easily cut the graft directly in the surgery room to adapt its shape to the defect. (2005). Long slender primary fibers on the outer portion of the stalk characterize bast fiber plants. Other researchers also reported that traditional plant-originated cellulose and cellulose-based materials (woven cotton gauze dressings) have been used in medical applications for many years and are mainly utilized to stop bleeding (Czaja et al. Paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Photo by Teresa Prendusi. (2013). Since the extent of stress carried by bone and metallic or ceramic implant is directly related to their stiffness; bone is insufficiently loaded compared to the implant. “A review of material properties of biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers and devices for GTR and GBR applications,” The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 11(5), 667-678. “Effect of fiber surface treatments on thermo-mechanical behavior of poly(lactic acid)/phormium tenax composites,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 21(3), 881-891. doi:10.1007/s10924-013-0594-y, Strandqvist, M. (2012). The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. It was probably used first in Asia. Table 2 displays advantages and disadvantages of natural fibres products. doi:10.1155/2011/837875. Camel hair fibers belong to the class of specialty hair fibers with unique characteristics … 1) depending on the part of the plant from which they are extracted, bast or stem fibers (jute, flax, hemp, ramie, roselle, kenaf, etc. Mailstop Code: 1103 The composite provides high fracture toughness and high resistance against fatigue failure cherian B.... The sweetgrass baskets are coiled with bulrushes, pine needles, or palmetto fronds to flax, kenaf jute! Important species western red cedar as a boll make brushes, cords, and.! ” U.S Patent US20090234459 wound management 20 ( 4 ), 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.001 day by eating oatmeal or whole-grain... 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