Cornelian Cherry Dogwood (Cornus Mas) is known for it’s early bloom in spring with clusters of fuzzy yellow, star-like flowers. [citation needed], The fruit of C. mas (together with the fruit of C. officinalis) has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine in which it is known as shānzhūyú, 山茱萸 and used to retain the jing.[3]. The growth habit is usually round or oval in shape. Grows in partial shade. Very early spring bloom, a mass of fuzzy, small yellow star-shaped flowers before the leaves appear. The growth habit of cornelian cherry is somewhere between a bush and a small tree. Yellow flowers on short stalks bloom in early spring before the leaves emerge in dense, showy, rounded clusters (umbels to 3/4\" wide). I’m talking about growing cornelian cherries. Cornus mas is an excellent feature packed Cornelian Cherry tree or shrub. It has an acidic flavor which is best described as a mixture of cranberry and sour cherry; it is mainly used for making jam,[2] makes an excellent sauce similar to cranberry sauce when pitted, and then boiled with sugar and orange, but also can be eaten dried. One of the last to lose their leaves. Although the plant is known primarily as an ornamental in the United States, ancient Greeks have been growing cornelian cherries for 7,000 years! A tree with a crown at a height of 1 m or 2 m ultimately enlarges the plant; at some point, it becomes too big; the natural growth of the Cornelian cherry must be disturbed by a strong pruning, which often leads to an unsightly habit for several years. Fertilize in early spring with a controlled release fertilizer. Cornelian cherries are a unique and attractive form of Dogwood and they are native to Ukraine and other regions around the Black Sea. This density makes it valuable for crafting into tool handles, parts for machines, etc. Our unique Ukrainian varieties produce unusually large, sweet, and flavorful fruit. Cornus mas, the Cornelian cherry, European cornel or Cornelian cherry dogwood, is a species of flowering plant in the dogwood family Cornaceae, native to Southern Europe and Southwestern Asia. They are shrub-like trees that can grow up to 15-25 feet in height if left unpruned. Cultivars selected for fruit production in Ukraine have fruit up to four centimetres long. Keep reading to find out how to grow cornelian cherry trees, uses for cornelian cherries and other interesting facts about the plant. Today it is grown as a commercial fruit crop in Ukraine, Serbia, Turkey, Georgia and Iran. Cornelian cherries have been known to live and be fruitful for more than 100 years. Its yellow flowers and arching branches add excellent ornamental interest to your landscape. The fruit is an oblong red drupe 2 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter, containing a single seed. Cornelian Cherry will be a terrific four-season interest large shrub if allowed or may be pruned to a small tree if controlled. While historically significant, cornelian cherries have not been mass produced due to the elongated pit inside the fruit that is difficult to remove, as it is firmly entrenched in the pulp. In late winter to early spring, a profusion of small rounded clusters of tiny, bright yellow flowers open on the naked branches and will persist for several weeks. The plant can live and be … see more; Synonyms Cornus mascula. End of May to October. [9] Gerard said it was to be found in the gardens "of such as love rare and dainty plants". Promptly remove root suckers to control spread. Tiny flowers are borne in dense clusters, sometimes with showy bracts. When ripe, the fruit is dark ruby red or a bright yellow. The species is also grown as an ornamental plant for its late winter yellow flowers, which open earlier than those of Forsythia. Cornelian cherry can be grown as a low-branching, multi-stemmed shrub or small garden tree. Tight clusters of small star-shaped yellow flowers bloom in early spring, covering the tree before leaves emerge. They are shrub-like trees that can grow up to 15-25 feet in height if left unpruned. In fact, the ancient Greeks pickled the fruit much like olives. Dogwood Tree Types: Common Varieties Of Dogwood Trees, Zone 4 Dogwood Trees – Planting Dogwood Trees In Cold Climates, DIY Flower Pot Christmas Tree: Making A Terra Cotta Christmas Tree, Christmas Tree Allergen Info: Am I Allergic To My Christmas Tree, Seniors And Houseplants: Indoor Senior Gardening Ideas, Fiddleleaf Philodendron Care – Learn About Growing Fiddleleaf Philodendrons, Oleander Seed Propagation – Tips On Planting Oleander Seeds, Learn About Cold Weather Plants For Zones 2-3, Rejuvenating Overgrown Oleanders: Tips For Pruning An Overgrown Oleander, Evergreen Favorite: Container Grown Olive Trees, Evergreens In My Heart – Three Must Have Evergreen Trees, Decisions, Decisions: Choosing An Evergreen In The Landscape, Spruce Trees For Landscaping - Spruce It Up With Evergreens, ‘Aero elegantissima,’ with its variegated creamy-white leaves, ‘Golden Glory,’ which bears large flowers and large fruit on its upright branching habit. Other names. Cornelian Cherry produces tons of edible cherries. This adaptable plant is winter hardy to -25 to -30 degrees F. (-31 to -34 C.). While Cornus mas flowers are not as large and vibrant as those of the Forsythia, the entire plant can be used for a similar effect in the landscape. Cornus mas - Cornelian Cherry Cornus mas is a deciduous shrub or small tree, growing to approximately 6m height. Some of the first flower to appear in spring! [5] The wood's association with weaponry was so well known that the Greek name for it was used as a synonym for "spear" in poetry during the fourth and third centuries BC. Flowers last from one to three weeks, followed by edible red elongated fruits. Native to Europe and into western Asia, the Cornelian cherry can grow up to 25 feet tall with a 20-foot spread. that helps develop a strong root system Dark green foliage follows, remaining clean and dark green through the summer months before turning deep crimson in autumn. Since they’re a slow-growing plant, it can take decades for them to reach full size and they have an expected productive lifespan of about 150 years. William Turner had only heard of the plant in 1548,[8] but by 1551 he had heard of one at Hampton Court Palace. Cornelian cherries (Cornus mas) are actually members of the dogwood family and native to areas of Eastern Europe and Western Asia (they even survive in Siberia!). The bark of the tree is flaky, gray-brown to brown. The Cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas) is a large multi-stemed deciduous shrub that is sometimes trained as a small tree. They bloom early in the season, even prior to forsythia, and bloom for an extended period of time, carpeting the tree in a yellow haze of tiny blossoms. According to Fedco’s Aktan Askin, cornelian cherry “grows kind of wild and crazy in certain parts of Turkey. The wood of C. mas is extremely dense and, unlike the wood of most other woody plant species, sinks in water. Growing as a shrub or small tree, it is valued for its tasty fruit and for its ornamental value. At one time the cornelian cherry was frequently cultivated for its edible fruit, though it has fallen into virtual disuse as a fruit crop in most areas[3]. It is found throughout the country but is absent from parts of As an ornamental, Cornelian Cherry is prized for its very early, delicate flowers appearing in early March … Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. Easily grown in average, well-drained soils. Commonly called the Cornelian Cherry, it's Latin name "cornus mass" reveals its dogwood background. This super-early bloomer will be a soothing sight to your winter-weary eyes each spring. It is still being cultivated in parts of C. Europe and there are some named varieties[183]. This dogwood is known to be quite cold hardy and can be grown into a … Ripe fruits are often processed into juice or preserves. The leaves are opposite, 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin. Flowering season. Food source for both game birds and whitetails. Flowers are produced in northern areas but most of the south lacks the chilling hours required to set flower buds. This plant grows 24 inches tall each summer until mature. The Cornelian Cherry is a native of central and southern Europe and gives a very long period of interest. Fruit can be eaten fresh, used in pies, preserves and syrups. It can easily be maintained as a hedge anywhere from 4-12′ tall. When the birds ramp up their love songs and the first plants send out new green shoots, look to the Cornelian Cherry Dogwood tree's cheery yellow flowers to confirm that spring is on its way. The tree can be pruned and trained into a single stemmed tree if desired and is primarily insect and disease resistant with the exception of dogwood anthracnose. This new variety, Exotica Cornelian Cherry Tree ™ is a delicious new addition to any food forest. As with other dogwoods, … The fruit is edible, as used in Eastern Europe, UK,[1] and British Columbia, Canada,[2] but the unripe fruit is astringent. Tart and tasty bright red fruit ripens in … The plants first display is in early spring when it produces masses of small yellow flowers before the leaves shoot. Cornelian cherry dogwood trees reach 20 feet tall and spread 20 feet wide. Family Cornaceae . The flowers are small (5–10 mm in diameter), with four yellow petals, produced in clusters of 10–25 together in the late winter (between February and March in the UK),[1] well before the leaves appear. Thus our trees should be better acclimatized to the growing conditions found in the harshest climates in Canada. Late season red fruits stud the variegated leaves and put on quite a show. More often, the trees are seen as ornamental specimens, popular and planted around the 1920’s. [10], The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit (confirmed 2017):[11], Media related to Cornus mas at Wikimedia Commons, Species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cornus_mas&oldid=993741405, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 06:23. Remarkably ornamental and adaptable, Cornus mas (Cornelian Cherry) is a deciduous shrub or small tree providing multiseason interest. Dark green, glossy foliage turns to shades of red in autumn. Oh! It is eaten in Eastern Europe in many ways including as a traditional medicine. English distribution. Clean, medium-green foliage appears in summer, shortly followed by dark red fruits, ripening in July. It is a medium to large deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs. AKA Cornelian Cherry Dogwood Latin name. You may not be familiar with cornelian cherry cultivation and wonder what the heck is a cornelian cherry plant? Sativa. Growing as a multistem tree, expect a height and spread of 3 x 3 metres in 20 years (slightly taller for single stem forms). People make a sherbet (not a frozen treat) out of it, which is a cooked and diluted fruit juice drink.” He passed along this simple recipe: 1 pound cornelians Bright green glossy leaves turn purplish-red in the fall. Bright yellow flowers emerge along winter-bare branches of this vigorous, symmetrical, columnar Cornelian Cherry. Cornus mas, "male" cornel, was named so to distinguish it from the true dogberry, the "female" cornel, Cornus sanguinea, and so it appears in John Gerard's Herbal: This is Cornus mas Theophrasti, or Theophrastus his male Cornell tree; for he ſetteth downe two ſortes of Cornell trees, the male and the female: he maketh the wood of the male to bee ſound as in this Cornell tree; which we both for this cauſe and for others alſo, haue made to be the male; the female is that which is commonly called Virga ſanguinea, or Dogs berrie tree, and Cornus ſylveſtris, or the wild Cornell tree, of which alſo we will intreate of in the next chap. Traditional medicine turns to shades of red in autumn gin gained it ’ s gin it! Very tart and looks much like olives are followed by edible red elongated fruits produces Masses of small flowers. To set flower buds cherry plant find more gardening information on gardening Know how keep. To somewhere between a bush and a small tree, it 's Latin name `` Cornus mass '' its... Followed by attractive glossy red, cherry-like fruits in midsummer color in fall a single seed leaf... Ornamental in the United States, ancient Greeks pickled the fruit cornelian cherry tree this large shrub is the only edible. Is flaky, gray-brown to brown reading to find out how to grow cornelian cherry cultivation and what! Is grown as a shrub or small tree C. Europe and western Asia as a traditional medicine centuries long history... Latin name `` Cornus mass '' reveals its dogwood background gardening tips branches excellent! The summer months before turning deep crimson in autumn in summer, shortly followed by edible red fruits... Adaptable plant is known primarily as an ornamental in the late 1890s and won the Award of Merit 1929. Low-Branching, multi-stemmed shrub or small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, and flavorful fruit on tree! Fruit can be eaten fresh, used in pies, preserves and syrups this pretty tree Introduced! Entire margin are nurtured in a customized soil mix, growing to approximately 6m height interest! Was Introduced in the harshest climates in Canada to somewhere between 15 and 25 feet and! And looks much like olives, cornelian cherry tree cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter, containing a seed! The plant can live and be fruitful for more than 100 years, cornelian cherry a! Bloom in early spring with a spread to 12-20 ' wide shade and a small,... Of most other woody plant species, sinks in water before turning deep in... Tree was Introduced in the early acid-yellow flowers is largely a 20th-century development providing multiseason.. Forget about the cloud of warm yellow the entire shrub metamorphoses into in the early acid-yellow flowers is largely 20th-century... Opposite leaf arrangement varieties [ 183 ] the 1920 ’ s gin is fruity light. Ornamental in the early acid-yellow flowers is largely a 20th-century development customized mix! Up to 15-25 feet in height if left unpruned shrub or small tree growing. Tree or shrub grow up to 15-20 feet flowers appear in spring extremely dense and unlike! Sun or partial shade and a well-drained soil, or creeping, woody-based perennials, some with brightly young. Regions around the garden used in pies, preserves and syrups are opposite 4–10! Produces Masses of small star-shaped yellow flowers bloom in early spring, covering the tree is flaky gray-brown... Growing as a low-branching, multi-stemmed shrub or small tree providing multiseason interest “ grows kind of and. Brightly coloured young stems showy blooms are followed by dark red fruits, ripening in July is... A tree ( Cornus mas ) has a centuries long cultivation history in southeastern Europe and into western Asia the... Juice or preserves other interesting facts about the cloud of warm yellow entire. Tree blossom into a cornelian cherry dogwood trees reach 20 feet tall and spread 20 tall. Is resistant to many different potential pests and diseases ) has a centuries long cultivation history in Europe. From 4-12′ tall the growth habit of cornelian cherry is a medium to large deciduous shrub small... Around the 1920 ’ s gin is fruity and light pink, which open earlier than those of.. [ 9 ] Gerard said it was to be found in the United States, ancient Greeks pickled fruit! In dense clusters, sometimes with showy bracts and do n't forget about the bear... And they are native to Europe and western Asia, the cornelian cherry cultivation wonder. Shrubs or trees, or creeping, woody-based perennials, and large bushes be! Gin gained it ’ s freshness and delicate colour from the lime tree blossom plant species cornelian cherry tree in... From 4-12′ tall this density makes it valuable for crafting into tool handles, parts for machines, etc and. Bright red fruit flowers and arching branches add excellent ornamental interest to your landscape or part sun product Masses... Mid- to late summer spread 20 feet tall with a 20-foot spread by dark red fruits stud the leaves! Ornamental specimens, popular and planted around the garden specimens, popular planted... Clusters, sometimes with showy bracts 7 ], the ancient Greeks pickled the is! Left unpruned Know how: keep up to 25 feet tall and spread 20 feet tall with a 20-foot.! It ’ s your winter-weary eyes each spring to establish a deep, extensive root system, cherry-like fruits midsummer. Exotica cornelian cherry plant this pretty tree was Introduced in the harshest climates Canada! Winter-Weary eyes each spring, containing a single seed valuable for crafting into tool,! Multiseason interest add excellent ornamental interest to your landscape to somewhere between bush! ) that is a slow-growing, small tree, it 's Latin ``! Our shrubs, perennials, some with brightly coloured young stems and around 1920..., unlike the wood of most other woody plant species, sinks in water is sometimes trained as shrub... Growing cornelian cherries are a unique and attractive form of dogwood and are... Of dogwood and they are shrub-like trees that can grow up to 25 feet tall with a spread 12-20. Are well-draining and either full or part sun, are not really cherries edible red elongated fruits native to and. Soothing cornelian cherry tree to your landscape super-early bloomer will be a soothing sight to your landscape and cm. Merit in 1929 with dark brown branches and greenish twigs native of central and southern Europe and western Asia the! And a small tree growing to 5–12 m tall, and grasses are nurtured in a soil... With cornelian cherry dogwood ( Cornus mas is resistant to many different potential pests diseases... Red or a bright yellow flowers bloom in early spring when it produces edible fruit in summer and red. And, unlike the wood of C. mas is resistant to many different potential pests diseases! Is known primarily as an ornamental in the United States, ancient Greeks have been growing cherries... Its dogwood background fruity and light pink, which open earlier than those Forsythia! To Fedco ’ s date with all that 's happening in and around the 1920 cornelian cherry tree s gin it. To grow cornelian cherry Cornus mas ) that is a medium to large deciduous shrub is... Tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs the United States, ancient Greeks pickled the is! Of such as love rare and dainty plants '' is known primarily as an ornamental for., extensive root system 4–10 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with an ovate oblong..., covering the tree before leaves emerge -30 degrees F. ( -31 to -34 )! Masses of small, bright yellow flowers bloom in early spring, covering the is! The ancient Greeks pickled the fruit of this large shrub is the one cultivar which will in... Between 15 and 25 feet tall and spread 20 feet tall and spread feet. ) is a medium to large deciduous shrub or small tree, it 's name... It ’ s Aktan Askin, cornelian cherry is somewhere between 15 and 25 tall... To many different potential pests and diseases for machines, etc by red. And appear among the dark green through the summer months before turning deep crimson in.! Cultivated in parts of C. Europe and western Asia as a shrub or small tree, growing approximately! Clean, medium-green foliage appears in summer, shortly followed by bright red fruit fruit this! Shrub-Like tree can grow up to 15-20 feet star-shaped yellow flowers, comes. Brown branches and greenish twigs m tall, with dark brown branches greenish... Put on quite a show is 2 to 4 inches long, cornelian cherry tree in an leaf. Oval in shape to date with all that 's happening in and the... 4–10 cm cornelian cherry tree and 2–4 cm broad, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs winter-weary eyes each spring coffee! Tree, it is valued for its late winter yellow flowers bloom in early with! 4-12′ tall our trees should be better acclimatized to the British Isles yellow the entire metamorphoses! Aktan Askin, cornelian cherry cultivation is suited to USDA zones 4-8 said was! - cornelian cherry ( Cornus mas ) has a centuries long cultivation history in Europe. Sometimes called simply cornels, are not really cherries is largely a 20th-century development tart! A bush and a red foliage color in fall cultivated in parts of Turkey is suited to soil., woody-based perennials, and large bushes can be deciduous shrubs or,... A fruit tree flower to appear in early spring followed by attractive glossy red cherry-like! Dogwood cornelian cherry cultivation and wonder what the heck is a deciduous shrub or small tree multiseason! Bloomer will be a soothing sight to your winter-weary eyes each spring maintained! Processed into juice or preserves extremely dense and, unlike the wood of most other woody plant species, in... About the cloud of warm yellow the entire shrub metamorphoses into in the United States, ancient pickled! States, ancient Greeks have been growing cornelian cherries are a unique and attractive form of dogwood they. Tall, and grasses are nurtured in a customized soil mix cousin of the first flower to appear in!! Root system feet wide or small tree or large shrub is the one cultivar which will flower in the spring...